The exhibition offers an exceptional opportunity to see an important selection of works from the Prado displayed for the first time alongside the collection of armour belonging to Patrimonio Nacional. This is an unprecedented concept for an exhibition and one that will establish a direct comparison between the court portraits painted by leading masters such as Titian and Rubens and the armour worn by Spanish monarchs that symbolised their power at the height of that monarchy’s splendour.
A focus on the symbolism of armour
Based on the exhibition held at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, last year, “The Art of Power” offers a more complete presentation of the subject. It focuses on the meaning and symbolism of armour and its representation in painting. From the viewpoint of an exhibition, this is an unprecedented subject that has only previously been analysed as a subsidiary issue in a few studies on the history of the portrait. The exhibition takes the form of an introductory section and four monographic ones, entitled “The Court Portrait and the Armouries of Charles and Philip II”, “The Absence of Portraits in Armour in the second half of the 16th century and their Revival under Philip III prior to his Accession”, “The Royal Armoury in 17th-century Court Painting”, and “The Bourbon Armed Portrait: the French and Spanish Tradition”.
Helms alongside paintings
The exhibition opens with an introductory room that aims to explain the importance of the royal collections of armour and painting at the Renaissance and Baroque courts as well as ideological and thematic connections. Notable exhibits in this room include the Parade Helm of Charles V with the symbol of the Golden Fleece, an object that emphasises the monarch’s position as Grand Master of that prestigious knightly Order, and the Burgonet of Charles V, symbolising the victory of Christianity over Islam. These objects are seen alongside paintings by Velázquez, Rubens and Teniers. Also on display are documents containing orders given to the Royal Armoury allowing Velázquez and Rubens access in order to copy details of arms and armour.
The treasures of the Royal Armoury
• Emperor Charles V on Horseback at Mühlberg, Titian. Oil on canvas, 335 x 283 cm, 1548, Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado
• Charles V Armour called Mühlberg , Desiderius Helmschmid. Embossed, engraved and gilt steel, Augsburg 1544, Madrid, Patrimonio Nacional, Real Armería
Overall, the exhibition offers a broad overview of the issues pertaining to the relationship between armour and painting. 35 paintings are seen alongside 27 full suits of armour and pieces of armour loaned from the Royal Armoury in Madrid, which houses the personal arms and armour of the Spanish monarchs as well as military trophies and diplomatic and family gifts, and is considered the finest collection in the world along with that of the imperial collection in Vienna. Together, they narrate the evolution and impact of the court portrait in the period from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Particularly noteworthy is the juxtaposition of Titian’s portrait of Charles V at Mühlberg and the impressive suit of equestrian armour belonging to the Emperor: a masterpiece of the art made by Desiderius Helmschmid, one of the leading armourers of the 16th century. Visitors can also see a tapestry, medals and sculptures that further explain the connections between the two principal groups.